[38], Two identical reactors, D Reactor and F reactor, came online in December 1944 and February 1945, respectively. A 2014 report by the DOE Savannah River National Laboratory initiated by 'Washington River Protection Solutions' found that DOE's methods to study vapor releases were inadequate, particularly, that they did not account for short but intense vapor releases. It is a desert environment receiving under 10 inches of annual precipitation, covered mostly by shrub-steppe vegetation. Home Price Cancer mortality from 1950 through 2000 wa … In October 2015, the Department of Energy resolved the final cases. At the time, plutonium was a rare element that had only recently been isolated in a University of California laboratory. The WHO guidelines for radionuclides in drinking-water limits levels of iodine-129 at 1 Bq/L, and tritium at 10,000 Bq/L. [34] Two hundred short tons (180 t) of uranium slugs, 1.625 inches (4.13 cm) diameter by 8 inches (20 cm) long, sealed in aluminium cans went into the tubes. Top Stories Analytical Lab Deemed Ready to Operate. Undichte Tanks auf dem kontaminierten Gelände machen Schlagzeilen. It is a desert environment receiving under 10 inches of annual precipitation, covered mostly by shrub-steppe vegetation. [97], Under the Tri-Party Agreement, lower-level hazardous wastes are buried in huge lined pits that will be sealed and monitored with sophisticated instruments for many years. A big city usually has a population of at least 200,000 and you can often fly into a major airport. Activities at Hanford produced significant quantities of waste containing hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. [39] Throughout this period, the Manhattan Project maintained a top secret classification. Washington (engl. Antonio K. Rhoads May 2004 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 [20], During World War II, the S-1 Section of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) sponsored an intensive research project on plutonium. [38] In 2005, two of six plaintiffs who went to trial were awarded $500,000 in damages. Since then, the DOE changed to monitoring single-shell tanks monthly and double-shell tanks every three years, and also changed monitoring methods. [16], The confluence of the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers has been a meeting place for native peoples for centuries. [32] The project required 386 miles (621 km) of roads, 158 miles (254 km) of railway, and four electrical substations. The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Self-guided Virtual Tours Give Public a New View of Hanford Cleanup. [87], On June 25, 1988, the Hanford site was divided into four areas and proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List. [36] Plutonium was produced in the Hanford reactors when a uranium-238 atom in a fuel slug absorbed a neutron to form uranium-239. [94][100][101] According to a 2012 study by the General Accounting Office, there were a number of serious unresolved technical and managerial problems. More. The Wanapum people were never forced onto a reservation, and they lived along the Columbia River in the Priest Rapids Valley until 1943. [24] General Groves visited the site in January 1943 and established the Hanford Engineer Works, codenamed "Site W". Since then, most of the Hanford reactors have been entombed ("cocooned") to allow the radioactive materials to decay, and the surrounding structures have been removed and buried. [112], Cooling water retention basins at the F-Reactor, Underground tank farm with 12 of the site's 177 waste storage tanks, View of the central plateau from Rattlesnake Mountain, The government town of Richland in the early days of the site, Hanford scientists feeding radioactive food to sheep, "Atomic Frontier Days" parade in Richland, Decommissioned nuclear production complex in Washington, United States. Matthias reported that Hanford was "ideal in virtually all respects", except for the farming towns of White Bluffs and Hanford. Although total Hanford prime contractor employment has grown 18% from 7,340 in 1997 to 8,666 in 2008, the populations of Benton and Franklin counties have increased 28%, from 183,709 to 235,700 during this period (OFM 2009). DuPont de Nemours & Company (DuPont), Assumed GEs environmental and bioassay testing role, Assumed GE's laboratory operations – subsequently renamed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Single pass reactor operations & fuel fabrication, Assumed GE's chemical processing operations, Assumed remainder of GE's reactor operations, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Spun off from PNL with mission to build the, Name change from Douglas United Nuclear only, Replaced AEC – managed site until October 1, 1977, Consolidated contract includes former J.A. Standardized winter inventories conducted over the last three years have estimated the herd to be 674 (2005), 537 (2006), 681 (2007), and 639 (2008) animals—a four-year average of 633 elk. The federal government quickly acquired the land under its war powers authority[25] and relocated some 1,500 residents of Hanford, White Bluffs, and nearby settlements, as well as the Wanapum people, Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Nation, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and the Nez Perce Tribe. Hanford (GNIS FID: 1511641) is a populated place located in Benton County at latitude 46.584 and longitude -119.388. -- Beland 12:55, 3 March 2016 (UTC) External links modified. Analysis of c Der Nuklearkomplex Hanford Site im US-Bundesstaat Washington lieferte seit 1943 Plutonium – auch für die Atombombe auf Nagasaki. During the Cold War, the project expanded to include nine nuclear reactors and five large plutonium processing complexes, which produced plutonium for most of the more than 60,000 weapons built for the U.S. nuclear arsenal. Washington Research Tools. Between 1944 and 1957, radioactive 131I was released into the environment from the Hanford site. QuickFacts provides statistics for all states and counties, and for cities and towns with a population of 5,000 or more. [75] The Washington State Department of Health collaborated with the citizen-led Hanford Health Information Network (HHIN) to publicize data about the health effects of Hanford's operations. The elk population in Washington was estimated at 15,000 in 1930 and peaked in 1970 at approximately 69,000 (McCall 1997b). [29], The construction workers (who reached a peak of 44,900 in June 1944) lived in a construction camp near the old Hanford townsite. In mid-1944 a simple gun-type bomb was found to be impractical for plutonium, and the more advanced Fat Man bomb, an implosion device, required less plutonium. Hanford, CA: Tacoma, WA: United States Population: 55,599: 207,280: 321,004,407 Female Population: 49.6%: 50.3%: 50.8% Male Population: 50.4%: 49.7%: 49.2% Median Age Between 2017 and 2018 the population of Hanford-Corcoran, CA declined from 150,183 to 150,075, a -0.0719% decrease and its median household income grew from $49,742 to $53,865, a 8.29% increase. Doctors checked workers and cleared them to return to work. Among the 50 states, 10 contained no metro areas with net migration declines over the eight-year period. In December, Congress approved a record-high environmental cleanup budget of $2.6 billion for the Hanford nuclear reservation in Eastern Washington. Documents refer to such a sample, belonging to "Watt's group", which was disposed of in its safe when a radiation leak was suspected. In 1989, the State of Washington (Dept. [10] As of 2014[update] the agencies are engaged in the world's largest environmental cleanup, with many challenges to be resolved in the face of overlapping technical, political, regulatory, and cultural interests. [94], The most significant challenge at Hanford is stabilizing the 53,000,000 US gallons (200,000,000 l; 44,000,000 imp gal) of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks. Benton County. The elevation of Hanford is 404 feet. "[41], Initially six reactors or "piles" were proposed, when the plutonium was to be used in the gun-type Thin Man bomb. Jones work. Cancer mortality from 1950 through 2000 wa … Arthur H. Compton's scientists needed an area of approximately 225 square miles. [109] In a subsequent suit, federal authorities were ordered to either approve or reject plans for the Yucca Mountain storage site. [87], In August 2014, OSHA ordered the facility to rehire a contractor and pay $220,000 in back wages for firing the employee for whistleblowing on safety concerns at the site. [102] As of 2013[update] estimated costs were $13.4 billion with commencement of operations estimated to be in 2022 and about 3 decades of operation. The material was used in Trinity, the first nuclear explosion, on July 16, 1945. [91] Citing the 2014 Hanford Lifecycle Scope Schedule and Cost report, the 2014 estimated cost of the remaining Hanford clean up is $113.6 billion – more than $3 billion per year for the next six years, with a lower cost projection of approximately $2 billion per year until 2046. The U.S. Department of Energy 30 years ago signed a legal agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the state of Washington that sets timelines for cleaning up the Hanford … Hanford-Corcoran experienced the highest net migration decline – 9.5 percent – among the metro areas in California between 2010 and 2018, according to an analysis by 24/7 Wall St. Over that time period, the metro area recorded a 1.1 percent drop in its overall population, the study found. Construction on B Reactor began in August 1943 and was completed on September 13, 1944. Advertisement. They recommended "proactively sampling the air inside tanks to determine its chemical makeup; accelerating new practices to prevent worker exposures; and modifying medical evaluations to reflect how workers are exposed to vapors". The project needed at least 190 square miles of secure space located at least 20 miles from any sizable town and 10 miles from a major highway. Current White Population in Hanford,California2020, 2019 with Demographics and Stats by age and gender. Hanford Site Division | In Kings County there was a decrease in home sales — down 11.5% year over year while the median price rose slightly to $265,00 from $258,00 a year earlier. Washington, UT: Hanford, CA: United States Population: 24,231: 55,599: 321,004,407 Median Income: $49,995: $53,543: $53,482 Median Age: 31: 31.5: 37.4 Avg. The archaeological record of Native American habitation of this area stretches back over ten thousand years. In … Washington. Hanford from 1994 to 1998, the Benton and Franklin counties population grew from 169,583 to 185,652. ZIP Codes | unfortunately local photos are no longer available Advertisement . South-central Washington state is vibrant, green, and home to 212 million liters of radioactive waste Photo: Maria Gallucci Author Maria Gallucci stands in front of the sign for the Hanford B Reactor. Die Hanford Reach ist ein etwa 51 mi (82 km) langer frei fließender Abschnitt des Columbia River im Osten des US-Bundesstaates Washington.Sie ist nach der großen, nordwärts gerichteten Flussschleife des sonst südwärts fließenden Flusses benannt. The nuclear reactors were located along the river in an area designated as the 100 Area; the chemical separations complexes were located inland in the Central Plateau, designated as the 200 Area; and various support facilities were located in the southeast corner of the site, designated as the 300 Area. [26][27], The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) broke ground in March 1943 and immediately launched a massive and technically challenging construction project. [2] This land is closed to the general public. The largest plutonium production project in the world occurred at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, a 560-square mile manufacturing plant located in southeastern Washington. The Washington State Health Department is trying to identify the cause of an unusually high number of rare birth defects in south central Washington, around the leaking Hanford nuclear site. Webber Research Group, Second War Powers Act 56 Stat. In 1943, about 1,200 people lived along the Columbia River in the southeastern Washington state farming towns of Richland, White Bluffs, and Hanford. [5] Intermittent discoveries of undocumented contamination have slowed the pace and raised the cost of cleanup.[6]. Hanford, CA: Mesa, AZ: United States Population: 55,599: 479,317: 321,004,407 Female Population: 49.6%: 50.6%: 50.8% Male Population: 50.4%: 49.4%: 49.2% Median Age Once the canyons began processing irradiated slugs, the machinery would become so radioactive that it would be unsafe for humans ever to come in contact with it. Detected radionuclides include strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, uranium-234, −235, and −238, and tritium. In 2018, Hanford-Corcoran, CA had a population of 150k people with a median age of 31.7 and a median household income of $53,865. Data Source - USGS GNIS FID: 1511641, BOUNDARY MAPS: While millions wait for a lifesaving shot, the U.S. death toll from the coronavirus continues to soar upward with horrifying speed. Satellite Map | What was the population at peak, and at the time of depopulation if different? [14] The site is divided by function into three main areas. Over the entire 40 years of operations, the site produced about 63 short tons (57 t) of plutonium, supplying the majority of the 60,000 weapons in the U.S. tuplashensis) April 18, 2013 Prepared for The US Fish and Wildlife Service Western Washington Fish … By April 1945, shipments of plutonium were headed to Los Alamos every five days, and Hanford soon provided enough material for the bombs tested at Trinity and dropped over Nagasaki. In 2000, large portions of the site were turned over to the Hanford Reach National Monument. There were so many people building Hanford that eight cafeterias were built too. [30][31], Construction of the nuclear facilities proceeded rapidly. Weber, Bert. Three or four pile reactors and one or two chemical separation complexes would be at least a mile apart for security and safety purposes, while nothing would be allowed within four miles of the separation complexes for fear o… … Property crimes are motor vehicle theft, arson, larceny, and burglary. [2] Besides the cleanup project, Hanford also hosts a commercial nuclear power plant, the Columbia Generating Station, and various centers for scientific research and development, such as the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Fast Flux Test Facility and the LIGO Hanford Observatory. liquid, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 04:03. He said that though the leak posed no immediate health risk to the public, it should not be an excuse for not doing anything. This first batch of plutonium was refined in the 221-T plant from December 26, 1944, to February 2, 1945, and delivered to the Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico on February 5, 1945. Many early safety procedures and waste disposal practices were inadequate, and government documents have confirmed that Hanford's operations released significant amounts of radioactive materials into the air and the Columbia River. [2] Hanford was at its peak production from 1956 to 1965. [5] That waste was originally scheduled to be removed by 2018. In 2007, the Hanford site represented 60% of high-level radioactive waste by volume managed by the US Department of Energy[7] and 7–9% of all nuclear waste in the United States (the DOE manages 15% of nuclear waste in the US, with the remaining 85% being commercial spent nuclear fuel). [44]:70, Another difficulty the engineers struggled with was how to deal with radioactive contamination. Map. Hanford Site Local Area Photos. [90] The cleanup effort is managed by the Department of Energy under the oversight of the two regulatory agencies. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project in Hanford, south-central Washington, the site was home to the B Reactor, the first full-scale plutonium production reactor in the world. Tribes and nations including the Yakama, Nez Perce, and Umatilla used the area for hunting, fishing, and gathering plant foods. The Columbia River flows along the site for approximately 50 miles (80 km), forming its northern and eastern boundary. Tri-Cities, which grew out of Hanford, has a combined population of about 200,000. Before its release into the river, the used water was held in large tanks known as retention basins for up to six hours. Hanford Island Archaeological Site (NRHP #76001870) and Hanford North Archaeological District (NRHP #76001871). Hanford appears on the Hanford U.S. Geological Survey Map. [13] Some of this land has been returned to private use and is now covered with orchards, vineyards, and irrigated fields. Welcome. By 2005, some liquid waste was transferred from single shell tanks to (safer) double shell tanks. [43]:136, In the short time frame of the Manhattan Project, Hanford engineers produced many significant technological advances. Due to prompt medical intervention, he survived the incident and died eleven years later of natural causes. of Ecology), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into the Tri-Party Agreement which sets targets, or milestones, for cleanup. Chart. DuPont recommended that it be located far away from the existing uranium production facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Hanford Area 2000 Population. The tours are free, can be reserved in advance via the department's web site, and are limited to U.S. citizens at least 18 years of age. [1] Plutonium manufactured at the site was used in the first nuclear bomb, tested at the Trinity site, and in Fat Man, the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan. Evaluate Demographic Data Cities, ZIP Codes, & Neighborhoods Quick & Easy Methods! [35] Cooling water was pumped through the aluminium tubes around the uranium slugs at the rate of 30,000 US gallons (110,000 L) per minute.[34]. As no one had ever built an industrial-scale nuclear reactor before, scientists were unsure how much heat would be generated by fission during normal operations. As much as 75,000 gallons per minute was diverted from the Columbia River to cool the reactor. They paid more than $60 million in legal fees and $7 million in damages. [108] Their first suit was dismissed in July 2011. [13] Groves recruited the DuPont Company to be the prime contractor for the construction of the plutonium production complex. [105][106], Some of the radioactive waste at Hanford was supposed to be stored in the planned Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository,[107] but after that project was suspended, Washington State sued, joined by South Carolina. The site has been known by many names, including Hanford Project, Hanford Works, Hanford Engineer Works and Hanford Nuclear Reservation. Even today, 10 perfect of the workforce is employed, one way or another, by Hanford… [53][54] B reactor was designated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service on August 19, 2008.[55][56][38]. Historically single shell tanks were used for storing radioactive liquid waste and designed to last 20 years. US > Washington > Hanford Site Local Area Photos Hanford Site, WA Photos . [75] A U.S. government report released in 1992 estimated that 685,000 curies (25.4 PBq) of radioactive iodine-131 had been released into the river and air from the Hanford site between 1944 and 1947. Cities & Towns | Benton County is in the Pacific Time Zone (UTC -8 hours). The administrators and engineers lived in the government town established at Richland Village, which eventually had accommodation in 4,300 family units and 25 dormitories. Some 53 truckloads (about 550 cubic yards (420 m3)) of soil were used to fill in the hole. Population in families living in Hanford ; Total Population: 45,780; Population Under 18 years: 16,355; Population 18 years and over: 29,425 Although total Hanford prime contractor employment has grown 18% from 7,340 in 1997 to 8,666 in 2008, the populations of Benton and Franklin counties have increased 28%, from 183,709 to 235,700 during this period (OFM 2009). The Hanford Site occupies 586 square miles (1,518 km2)—roughly equivalent to half of the total area of Rhode Island—within Benton County, Washington. Until news arrived of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, fewer than one percent of Hanford's workers knew they were working on a nuclear weapons project. [23], To receive the radioactive wastes from the chemical separations process, the HEW built "tank farms" consisting of 64 single-shell underground waste tanks (241-B, 241-C, 241-T, and 241-U). [28] DuPont advertised for workers in newspapers for an unspecified "war construction project" in southeastern Washington, offering "attractive scale of wages" and living facilities. [38], On the morning of May 9, 2017, a twenty-foot (6 m) section of a 360-foot (110 m) tunnel caved in. Without determining the extent to which the factors that contributed to the leak in AY-102 were similar to the other 27 double-shell tanks, DOE cannot be sure how long its double-shell tanks can safely store waste. Other detected contaminants include arsenic, chromium, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and sulfate. If you need to book a flight, search for the nearest airport to Hanford, WA. The site turned Hanford into an “atomic boomtown” at the time and its population rose to 50,000 ... weapons program extensively contaminated the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. [33]:35–36, The B Reactor (105-B) at Hanford was the first large-scale plutonium production reactor in the world. Get Current Demographic Data for Cities, Towns, and ZIP Codes, View Boundary Maps, for Cities, Towns, and ZIP Codes, Locate Physical, Cultural, and Historical Features. According to the Washington State Department of Health Hanford Website, nearly 2 million individuals were exposed to a total of 237 varying radionuclides released into the air pathway or through the Columbia River pathway from 1944 to 1972. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma, 1974-1993, fails to support the theory that radioactive fall-out from the Hanford, Washington Nuclear Energy Center has increased the incidence of thyroid cancer in the State of Washington. In March 2014, the DOE announced further delays in the construction of the Waste Treatment Plant, which will affect the schedule for removing waste from the tanks. In August 1947, the Hanford Works announced funding for the construction of two new weapons reactors and research to develop a new chemical separations process, entering a new phase of expansion. They came up with a modular cell concept, which allowed major components to be removed and replaced by an operator sitting in a heavily shielded overhead crane. The Met Lab researchers worked on producing chain-reacting "piles" of uranium to convert it to plutonium and finding ways to separate plutonium from uranium. [74], A huge volume of water from the Columbia River was required to dissipate the heat produced by Hanford's nuclear reactors. Although uranium enrichment and plutonium breeding were slowly phased out, the nuclear legacy left an indelible mark on the Tri-Cities. The Hanford site in Washington State made plutonium for the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, according to the Associated Press. [79], Beginning in the 1960s, scientists with the U.S. Public Health Service published reports about radioactivity released from Hanford, and there were protests from the health departments of Oregon and Washington. Craig, AK: Hanford, CA: United States Population: 1,285: 55,599: 321,004,407 Female Population: 48.0%: 49.6%: 50.8% Male Population: 52.0%: 50.4%: 49.2% Median Age The Hanford Site occupies 586 square miles (1,518 km )—roughly equivalent to half of the total area of Rhode Island—within Benton County, Washington. The FWS and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife have been cooperatively monitoring the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd population on the ALE since 2001. It has been operated under government contract by various private companies over the years, as summarized in the table through 2000. [88], On November 19, 2014, Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson said the state planned to sue the DOE and its contractor to protect workers from hazardous vapors at Hanford. On Tuesday, the last full day of Donald Trump's presidency, the official death count reached 400,000 — a once-unthinkable number. The elk population in Washington was estimated at 15,000 in 1930 and peaked in 1970 at approximately 69,000 (McCall 1997b). Elliott M.J. Scott E.J. It originates from either the village of Hanaford in Devon, or Handforth in the county of Cheshire, or from a similar… By 1998, about a third of these tanks had leaked waste into the soil and groundwater. As an example, plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,100 years, and a decay of ten half-lives is required before a sample is considered to cease its radioactivity. Solids, known as salt cake and sludge, remained. Between 1944 and 1957, radioactive 131I was released into the environment from the Hanford site. 176 (1942), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Manhattan Project National Historical Park, Office of Scientific Research and Development, University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, Energy Research and Development Administration, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, "Condition of Tanks May Further Limit DOE's Ability to Respond to Leaks and Intrusions  – Highlights", "Spike in radioactivity a setback for Hanford cleanup", "Agreement for a Cleanup at Nuclear Site", "Washington's Hanford becomes part of national historical park", "The Columbia River at Risk: Why Hanford Cleanup is Vital to Oregon", "In strange twist, Hanford cleanup creates latest boom", "Department of Energy's Tribal Program: The DOE Tribal Program at Hanford", "Construction of massive plutonium production complex at Hanford begins in March 1943", "Needed by E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company for Pacific Northwest (advertisement)", "Chronology of Important FOIA Documents: Hanford's Semi-Secret Thorium to U-233 Production Campaign", "Questions and Answers on Uranium-233 at Hanford", "Hanford Radioactivity in Salmon Spawning Grounds", "Hanford nuclear workers enter site of worst contamination accident", "National Historic Landmarks Program – B Reactor", "Plutonium: the first 50 years: United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994", "Preserving the Hanford B-Reactor: A Monument to the Dawn of the Nuclear Age", "Hanford's F Reactor passes 5-year inspection", "Looking inside Hanford's cocooned reactors", "Hanford Workers Enter Reactor to Prepare for Cocooning", "N Reactor Placed In Interim Safe Storage: Largest Hanford Reactor Cocooning Project Now Complete", "Fast Flux Test Facility shutdown completed at Hanford", "Gravitational Waves Exist: The Inside Story of How Scientists Finally Found Them", "Gravitational Wave Detection Heralds New Era of Science", "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last", "An Overview of Hanford and Radiation Health Effects", "Radiation Flowed 200 Miles to Sea, Study Finds", "Downwinders' court win seen as 'great victory, "Radiological Aspects (water sanitation)", "Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization", "Tank storing radioactive waste leaking in Washington", "Washington Gov. 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Two days later, on July 16, 1945, when such information was released the! Made aware of it, until August 31, 1945 approve or reject plans for the replacement any... Washington ( Dept from 1945 to 1951 even as the Washington and Oregon.... 1985 ) p. vi ; `` Silent Siege-II, Japanese Attacks on North America in.... That eight cafeterias were built too radioactive materials, uranium-234, −235, and tritium also found a! Full record ; other Related Research Hanford from 1994 to 1998, about a third these! Affected by this retention, and tritium at 10,000 Bq/L a second beta to! Site is located in eastern Washington State radioactive releases secret of at 200,000... Nuklearkomplex Hanford site im US-Bundesstaat Washington lieferte seit 1943 plutonium – auch für die Atombombe auf.... Franklin matthias of the impact from site radiological releases of plutonium and other high-level wastes is a populated place in... Discoveries of undocumented contamination have slowed the pace and raised the cost of cleanup. [ 6.. Was later measured 200 miles ( 80 km ) downstream as far west as the Washington and Oregon coasts small... And longitude -119.388 difficult problem that continues to soar upward with horrifying speed, fluoride nitrate! Period from 1945 to 1951 respects '', except for the full-scale plutonium facilities began after... 157 miles to Seattle, WA ( or 3 hours or 2 hours 1.

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